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Rembang tobacco is a sliced tobacco from Rembang Regency. The main area is in sawah tadah Hujan (Rain fed land) 100% located around Sulang, Sumber, Bulu, Gunem, Pamotan, Pancur sub District – Rembang Regency. The remainder area is in tegal (dry land with palawija base cropping system). The intensive farming implemented in Rembang Tobacco both on Sawah and Tegal. The Farmers build simple pond using “Plastic Tarpaulin” to collect water during rainy seasons. Rembang actually is new area, Its started on 2012 for commercial farming
The area of Rembang tobacco covering in Rembang is sawah scattered from EastCentral Java bordered with Pati regency (in the West), Blora (in the South), Tuban (in the Eastt) and Java Sea (in the North).
It is a plain area with altitude of 25 – 150 meters above sea level, plain topography, and slope of below 15%. Sawah area with technical and semi technical irrigation possesses alluvial soil, and fine/clay texture. Average yearly rainfall in the main tobacco area is 1,500 mm. Both sawah as main area and tegal, the yearly rainfall mostly is similar. The normal conditions, Rembang have 6 dry months which is very good for sun drying tobacco. Dry month occurred from May until November every year
Rembang Tobacco : Slicing Tobacco with Oriental Note
PROFILE OF REMBANG TOBACCO
The similarity of ecosystem makes similarities of cultural practicing, harvesting and post harvesting on every district in Rembang. The farmers generally use the tobacco guide line from the tobacco company because all tobacco farmers in Rembang is “Petani Mitra Binaan” from Tobacco Company.
All farmers use Serumpung variety that introduce from Weleri – Kendal Regency. The Serumpung Variety has some characteristic features is Plant height average 150 – 160 cm with conical habits. It has about 27 – 30 sessile leaves. Leaves color tend to Dark Green with broad elliptical leaf shape, Broad sessile type, very acute angle insertion, slightly re-curved longitudinal profile, medium development of auricles and strongly tendency to produce sucker. Inverted conical inflorescence shape with medium compactness. Light pink color of corolla and intermediate fruit form. Serumpung variety has potential yield more than 2.000 kg/ha dried and sliced leaf.
Serumpung Variety is the famous variety in Rembang Tobacco
B. Areas and production
The average area per year was 3.000 – 4.000 ha with average production of 4.800 – 6.400 ton per year. The average productivity is 1.6 tons/ha, with range between 1.0 – 2.2 tons/ha.
Productivity in rain fed (sawah tadah hujan) generally higher than in dry land (tegal) due to water availability and soil fertility. While in sawah it reached more than 1.8 tons/ha. Late planting date will reduce productivity of 30 – 70% caused by less intensive land preparation due to limited time and less water.
C. Cultural practices
1. Crop pattern and crop rotation
Mostly the farmers rotate the tobacco once per year. Crop pattern in sawah and tegal is illustrated on figure as below:
- Crop Pattern in sawah: Paddy – Tobacco – Empty
- Crop Pattern in Tegal: Corn or Soybeans – Tobacco – Empty
Corn or soybeans before tobacco in Dry Land
2. Land preparation
A short period of land preparation in sawah is done to make planting time properly. It causes the amount of labor used increase. Late planting date permits marketing problem (the price decreases or the end-product unsold). Land preparation on sawah is more intensive than that in tegal.
Land is ploughed twice to make a good soil texture than Land is hoed for making plant ridges (“guludan”). Hoeing also does plant hole prepared before transplanting. On tegal there is no drainage prepared. On sawah shallow well is prepared for irrigation in the tobacco area. The farmers mostly using tram line system in the planting tobacco
All farmers made the seedling by them self so the varieties as and number of seedling is manageable. The farmers receipt the seed and other seed beds material from tobacco company. They start sowing mostly on end of February until mid of March.
4. Planting space
Planting space for Rembang tobacco is (60 x 80) x 40 cm with population densities ranges of 35.700 plants per hectare. The effective population more or less 30.000 plants per hektar. The farmers mostly using double row or tram line system.
Fertilizer used for Rembang tobacco consists of TSP, Urea, ZA and ZK. The Fertilizer dosage is 50 kg/Ha Urea, 400 kg/ha Za (Ammonium Sulphate), 250 kg/ha SP36 and 200 kg/ha ZK (Potassium Sulphate). On the two locations it is applied by dibbling a week before transplanting. Ammonium Sulphate and Potassium Sulphate is applied 2 times at one and four weeks after transplanting, respectively.
Irrigation by hand pouring is only practiced in tobacco planted on wet land (sawah) started at planting up to age of 1.5 or 2 months. Water is supplied either from irrigation or shallow well within the area. Due to proper planting date for tobacco planted on Dry land (tegal), water needed is fulfilled from the rainfall (early planting date).
7. Ridging up and weeding
Rooting up is aimed to hill up plant row practiced once only. While weeding is done at age of 45 – 60 days. Some times they need conduct twice or three times for ridging up and weeding due to weather condition
8. Pest and disease control
The most insect pest attacking tobacco in Rembang Tobacco is Aphid (Aphis sp) and bud worm both On wet land (sawah) as well as dry land (tegal). The farmers mostly started using integrated Pest Management (IPM) to control the pest. They do pest monitoring to take decision their need apply pesticide or not. They used natural pesticide such as extract Nimb to pest control.
9. Topping and suckering
A light topping by removing three young top leaves is practiced at age of 60 – 75 days after planting both on wet land (sawah) or dry land (tegal)l. Suckering is begun at 5 – 7 days after topping using chemical sucker control such as butraline.
10. Harvesting and Post Harvesting
Harvesting is begun from age 80 – 90 days after planting, it is practiced in a phase. Mostly of tobacco leaves from wet land (sawah) and dry land (tegal) should be yellowed before cutting. They yellowed is at ranges of 2-3 days for lower leaves and 4-5 days for upper leaves. After complete yellowing the leaves are sliced begun at 01.00 a.m. Sun curing is begun in the morning and should be gotten dry at one – two day. There is no treatment of exposing to the dew.
Rembang Tobacco : Sun Drying need 1 – 2 days
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